Yes, it does.
Interesting stuff. Helvetica is the winner. No surprise to see Comic Sans as a clear no-no.
Does it matter? It would be very easy to dismiss the Helvetica vs. Times New Roman vs. Garamond debate as some new form of pedantry. Having resolved the vexed issue of the Oxford comma (especially traumatic if writing for a trans-Atlantic audience), must we now worry about pointy little feet on fonts?
I think it does. I think it matters more than we consciously comprehend.
There is clear research that a little friction in readability promotes recall.
Also, though I can’t point to any research on it, I think we relate to tiny, sub-conscious signals; those little cues that make you uncomfortable with someone for no obvious reason … or that suggest that this CV is, somehow, not as ideal as that other one.
If nothing else, it’s worth conscious thought rather than the simple default.
(Hat Tip to Bad Language’s Matthew Stibbe, @mstibbe, who flagged the article somewhere that I can’t now find.)